CitEc Frequently Asked Questions

CitEc stands for Citations in Economics. CitEc provides citation analysis for documents distributed in the RePEc digital library. In this way we know which documents have been cited, how many times and what the citing documents are.

For each document made freely available in electronic format we try to extract its list of references. Then we look though the list of references to find citations to documents in RePEc. The process is automated and therefore makes mistakes. [see more info]

CitEc is updated once a month.

Yes. CitEc generates citation data for documents available in RePEc. CitEc's data is freely available. It is used by other RePEc services like IDEAS or EconPapers. Usually people will use the data generated by CitEc trough one of such user services not directly on the CitEc web site.

Yes. Data generated by CitEc is then used in RAS to allow registered authors to correct and complete their personal citations profile. Once authors have added citations to their profile, data is distributed to the different user services (IDEAS, EconPapers, etc) Citations added by authors using RAS are distributed to the RePEc user services in a weekly basis. That means that such citations take about a week to be shown in IDEAS and EconPapers and can explain differences in citation counts between services.

CitEc was created by Jose Manuel Barrueco Cruz in 2001. Since then, he has maintained it in his spare time. He does not receive any money for this work. He does this as his contribution to improving scientific communication through open access. He has some humble disciples who occasionally help.

If you find his work useful, now you can buy him a beer

As other RePEc services, CitEc is based on the volunter work of the developers. Following the business model of the open source movement CitEc is able to work without funding. The only costs of the Project are those related to the hosting of the server. Over the past years they have been provided by the Valencian Economic Research Institute (Spain). Since 2013 CitEc is sponsored by INOMICS

Information for RePEc archive maintainers

Go to the archives maintainers page and enter the handle of your RePEc series or archive

Use the X-File-Ref field in your templates. The value of this field must be a valid URL of an ASCII file containing the references of the paper described by the template. For example:



[see more info]

Some publishers are collaborating with us in this way, please get in contact with barrueco at

Information for researchers

CitEc has narrower criteria for citation matches, thus having fewer errors than Google Scholar. Also, the coverage of CitEc is narrower than Google Scholar's. CitEc process only electronic documents distributed in RePEc which are available in open access on the Internet. For those journals that are available only under suscription, some publishers (like bepress, CEPR or T&F) give us references metadata of the articles they publish. We encourage editors to collaborate with us in order to increase the data set of references. You may see the current CitEc's coverage at the source data page. 

There are several conditions a document must fulfil to be analysed by CitEc:

to be available in electronic format
to be freely available on the Internet
to be in PDF or PostScript formats
the URL provided should point to the document itself, not to an intermediate abstract page
it should be possible to convert the PDF file into ASCII format
our software should be able to recognise the references
[see more info]

We can add manually references to the system. If your paper fails to be automatically processed you can submit its references list using our user input form

There may be missing citations in the data set. In order to identify missing citations, first check that both citing and cited documents are available in RePEc. Secondly be sure that the citing document has been processed by CitEc, that is, that its description page in IDEAS or EconPapers has a References section. If this is the case go to next answer, otherwise you can send us the full list of references of the citing document using our user input form.

Register with RAS and use the search engine to add citations to your profile. If that process fails, check that the citation you want to add is actually missing (see previous answer) then follow the steps:

1.- Go to:[handle], where [handle] is the handle of the citing document. See answer 3.7. For instance:

2.- Click on the "refresh data now" link in order to have the most uptodate information

3.- Go to de "Cites:" tab.

4A.- If the citing document has not been processed, the page will be empty and you will see a link to the user submission form. Submit the full list of references of the citing paper.

4B.- If the citing document has been processed, the page will show the list of references of the citing paper. Look for the reference which cites your work and add it to the database using the link: "Add citation now".

4C.- If the citing document has been processed but the reference to your work is missing, then send us an email to barrueco at with details of the citing and cited documents. Always include in the mails the RePEc handles for both documents.

That's all! Now be patient and the citation will shown in your profile in the coming days

CitEc and RAS use two databases that are synchronised daily. There may be small periods of time when the number of citations are different. If the difference persists more than two days, get in contact with barrueco @ uv dot es.

General questions

A handle is a unique and persistent identifier for every item in RePEc. Each paper, article, series, person ... needs to have a handle to be part of RePEc. The handle is a code that looks like: repec:aaa:ssssss:nnn and it is shown in the description of the item in all services.

In order to get the handle of a paper, you may seek for the paper in EconPapers or IDEAS. Once you have found the paper look for the string "handle" in the page. In EconPapers you will find the handle in the bottom right side of the page as shown in this example.

CitEc is a RePEc service, providing citation data for Economics since 2001. Sponsored by INOMICS. Last updated June, 27 2024. Contact: CitEc Team.